Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a disease in which the body experiences a severe loss of cellular immunity, increasing the risk of infection and malignancy. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is transmitted through exposure to bodily fluids such as that which can occur during sexual contact, pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, injection drug use, occupational exposure, blood transfusions and organ transplants.
Praise be to God
A Muslim practice of sacrificing a lamb or cow in honor of a child’s birth as a way to offer gratitude to God. The meat is distributed to those less fortunate.
May peace and blessings be upon you
A person who has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social group, or political opinion, and has crossed into a country in which he or she hopes to be granted refugee status. See also: Refugee
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye that impedes the passage of light and therefore affects vision. Most cataracts are related to ageing, although occasionally children may be born with the condition, or cataracts may develop after an injury, inflammation or disease.
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and produces an enterotoxin that causes a copious, painless, watery diarrhea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not given promptly. Vomiting also occurs in most patients.
A prolonged period of little to no rainfall.
A Muslim celebration to commence the season of pilgrimage. It is a common practice for Muslims to sacrifice an animal and distribute meat among family, neighbors, friends and the poor.
A Muslim celebration that concludes the annual month of fasting.
An inflammation of the liver usually caused by viruses, though autoimmune disorders or drug and alcohol abuse can also cause the condition.
Human immunodeficiency virus, a slow-acting retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.
The evening meal with which Muslims break their fast during the month of Ramadan.
Number of deaths of infants under one year per 1,000 live births in a given year
God willing; if God wills it.
A person forced to flee their home but who remains within their national borders. Causes of internal displacement include armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, and natural or human-made disasters.
The principal intergovernmental organization dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.
A nonsectarian, non-governmental international relief and development organization based in the United States, with operations in more than 40 countries. The IRC’s mission is to provide emergency relief, post-conflict development and resettlement services; to work for the protection of human rights; and to advocate for those uprooted or affected by violent conflict and oppression.
The religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The word Islam means “submission.”
A disease caused by a parasite passed from person to person primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes, though it can be transmitted from a mother to her unborn child and through blood transfusions. Symptoms include chills, convulsion, fever, headaches, sweating, and possible complications include brain infection, anemia caused by the destruction of red blood cells, kidney failure, liver failure, meningitis, fluid in the lungs and rupture of the spleen.
A medical condition characterized by the lack of proper nutrition. Malnutrition may be caused by not eating enough food, not eating nutritious foods or not being able to absorb nutrients in food.
The lending of small amounts of money at low interest rates to new businesses or entrepreneurs in the developing world.
The minimum property or wealth a Muslim must possess in order to pay the obligatory charity known as zakat.
A child who has lost one or both of their parents.
The development of agricultural ecosystems intended to be sustainable and self-sufficient.
Earning or having access to significantly less money than would be required to meet all basic needs of life.
The holy book of Islam.
The ninth month of the Islamic calendar, during which Muslims fast during the day. This fast comprises one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
A person who has fled their country of origin or residence and been granted asylum by another country because they have suffered or fear persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, because they are a member of a persecuted group, or because they are fleeing a human-made or natural disaster.
The forced return of a person to a country where he faces persecution.
The process of returning a person back to their place of origin or citizenship.
A contagious, fatal viral disease of dogs and other mammals that causes madness and convulsions. transmissible through the saliva to humans.
Voluntary charity including acts of generosity or love.
Perpetual charity or gifts that continue to benefit others long after they are given.
is any sexual act that is perpetrated against someone’s will. SV encompasses a range of offenses including rape or attempted rape, abusive sexual contact such as unwanted touching, and non-contact sexual abuse such as threats of sexual violence, exhibitionism, verbal sexual harassment.
An approach to development work that emphasizes meeting human needs while exercising responsible stewardship of natural resources for generations to come.
Arabic word for loftiness, conventionally used to mean training.
A long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
An infection that causes diarrhea and a rash. It is most commonly due to a type of bacterium called Salmonella typhi.
A mature tropical cyclone that develops in the northwest Pacific basin.
The Muslim practice of sacrificing livestock during Eid ul-Adha and distributing its meat to the poor.
Also known as the UN Refugee Agency, the UNHCR is mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
An agency of the United States government with the stated goals include providing “economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States”. It operates in Africa,Asia, Latin America and Europe.
United Nations Children’s Fund, an agency of the United Nations responsible for programs to promote education and improve the health of children and mothers in developing countries.
Muslim practice of obligatory alms-giving. Typically Muslims will give 2.5 percent of their wealth annually.